Category Archives for "BACKGROUND"


Privacy Policy

Last modified [13 June 2024]

The purpose of this Privacy Policy is to inform you of how the personal information we collect from you is collected, used and disclosed when you visit (the “Website”), how such information will be used by the Website, its advertising partners, and/or other persons or entities with whom such information may be shared, as well as your choices regarding the collection, use and distribution of such information and the security procedures that we have implemented to protect your privacy. Please read this policy carefully to understand our policies and practices regarding your information and how it will be handled. By continuing to use the Website, you expressly agree to be bound by this Privacy Policy, as amended from time-to-time. You further agree to regularly review this Privacy Policy to ensure that you are familiar with the most-current policies and practices. Your continued use of the Website after we make changes is acceptance of those changes. If you do not agree with our policies and practices, you must not use the Website.

If required by law, we will make reasonable efforts to contact you about material changes or updates to this policy: if you have provided us with an email address, you agree that we may email you a notice regarding such changes or updates; if you have not provided us with an email address, you agree to view this page periodically and when our site informs you that this Privacy Notice has been updated.

What This Policy Applies to

This policy applies to information we collect:

On the Website;
In email, text, and other electronic messages between you and the Website;
When you interact with our advertising and applications on third-party websites and services, if those applications or advertising include links to this Privacy Policy; and
When you provide information to us when requesting services.
This Privacy Policy also applies to information collected by us offline, whether in writing or orally (if recorded) or through any other means, including on any other website operated by us or any third party, or any third party, including through any application or content (including advertising) that may link to or be accessible from or on the Website.


The Website is not intended to provide services or sell products to persons under the age of 13 without the consent and involvement of a parent or guardian. If you are under 13, you may use this website only with the involvement of a parent or guardian. By using the Website, you represent and warrant that you are either at least 13 years old, or are using the services offered by the Website with the supervision and involvement of a parent or guardian 13 years of age or older. The Website does not provide services to children, nor do we collect any personal information from children under 13. “Children” as defined in the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act of 1998, and for purposes of this Privacy Policy, means persons under the age of 13. If you are a child, please exit this site immediately. We will delete any personal information we have received or collected from a child under the age of 13 without parental consent. If you believe we might have information from or about a child under the age of 13, please contact us at [].

Information Collected

We collect several types of information from and about users of the Website, including information:

That personally identifies you, such as your name, postal address, email address, telephone number, or any other information that would allow you to be contacted online or offline (“personal information”);
That is about you but does not identify you individually, such as the languages you speak or can read; and/or
About your internet connection, the equipment you use to access the Website, and usage details.
We collect this information in several ways, either:

Directly from you when you provide it to us;
Automatically as you use the Website. Automatically collected information may include usage details, IP addresses, and information collected through cookies, web beacons, and other tracking technologies; and
From third parties, such as our business partners.
The information we collect on or through the Website may include:

Information that you provide by filling in forms on the Website, such as our various contact forms. This includes information you provide at the time of registering to use the Website or suggest a business. We may also ask you for information when you report a problem with the Website;
Records and copies of your correspondence including email addresses, if you contact us;
Your responses to surveys that we might ask you to complete;
Details of transactions you carry out on or through the Website with our business partners;
Your navigation across the Website.
You may also provide information to be posted or displayed on public areas of the Website, or transmitted to other users of the Website and third parties, such as customer comments and reviews (collectively, “User Contributions”). Your User Contributions are posted on and transmitted to others at your own risk.

While navigating through and interacting with the Website, we may automatically collect certain information about your equipment, browsing actions, and patterns that are not tied to your user profile, including:

Details of your visits to the Website, including traffic data, location data, logs, and other communication data and the resources you access and use on the Website; and
Information about your computer and internet connection, including your IP address, operating system, and type of browser.
We may use automatic data collection technologies to gather information about your online activities on the Website over time and across third-party websites or other online services for behavioral tracking. For example, we may use various widgets and other tracking technologies to understand how you use the Website and what information you search for. You can also opt-out by sending an email to [].

Automatically collected information may include personal information or non-personal information that we associate or link to personal information that we collect in other ways, including from third parties. This helps us improve the Website and deliver a better and more personalized service, including allowing us to:

Estimate our audience size and usage patterns;
Store information about your preferences, allowing us to customize the Website according to your individual interests;
Speed up your searches; and
Recognize you when you return to the Website.
The technologies we use to automatically collect data may include:

Cookies: Cookies are pieces of information that are transferred to your computer from a web server. They help us recognize repeat visitors and improve the quality of our services. Cookies keep the Website secure by allowing us to detect activity that might violate our rules and Terms of Use. Most browsers are set up to accept cookies, but you can change your settings to have your browser notify you when you receive a new cookie or to refuse to accept cookies. Blocking or deleting cookies might prevent you from making the most of our services.
Web Beacons: Pages of the Website and our emails may contain small electronic files known as web beacons (also referred to as clear gifs, pixel tags, and single-pixel gifs) that provide website-related statistics, such as the number of users who have visited certain pages or opened an email.
Third-Party Use of Cookies and Other Tracking Technologies

Some content or applications on the Website, including advertisements, are served by third-parties, including advertisers, ad networks, ad servers, content providers, and application providers. These third parties may use cookies alone or together with web beacons or other tracking technologies to collect information about you when you use the Website. The information they collect may be associated with your personal information or they may collect information, including personal information, about your online activities over time and across different websites and other online services. They may use this information to provide you with interest-based (behavioral) advertising or other targeted content.

We do not control third parties’ tracking technologies or how they might use them. If you have questions about an advertisement or other targeted content, you should contact the responsible provider directly.

“Do not track”

You may have a feature in your browser that allows you to change your settings to “do not track.” We are required to disclose whether the Website honors the “do not track” setting in your browser. We developed the Website to provide a consistent interface and operability to all users, and thus we do not honor your browser’s “do not track” function.

How we use your information

We use information that we collect about you or that you provide to us, including any personal information:

To present the Website and its contents to you;
To provide you with information, products, or services that you request from us;
To fulfill any other purpose for which you provide it;
To provide you with notices about your account, including expiration and renewal notices;
To carry out our obligations and enforce our rights arising from any contracts you enter;
To notify you about changes to the Website or any products or services we offer or provide through it;
To allow you to participate in interactive features on the Website;
To deliver our review services to you;
In any other way we may describe when you provide the information;
For any other purpose with your consent; and
To comply with any relevant laws, regulations, ordinances, rules, directives, or statutes.
If you choose to opt-in to receive marketing materials from us, we may use your information to contact you about our own and third-parties’ goods and services that may be of interest to you. If you do not want us to use your information in this way, please disable cookies used by our website or click the unsubscribe link at the bottom of any marketing emails you may receive from us. You can also opt-out by sending an email to [].


Legal Bases for Processing for Users in the European Economic Area

If you are in the European Economic Area, we collect and process information about you only where we have a legal basis for doing so under applicable laws of the European Union. The legal basis depends on the services you use and how you use them. This means we collect and use your information only where:

It is necessary for the performance of a contract, such as to provide you with the services you requested, including to operate the services, provide customer support and personalized features, and to protect the safety and security of the services, including all processing necessary for the performance of our contract(s) with you;
It satisfies a legitimate interest that is not outweighed by your data protection rights and interests, such as for research and development, to market and promote our services, and to protect our legal rights and interests;
You give us consent to do so for a specific purpose; or
We need to process your data to comply with a legal obligation.
All of our information, including the data we collect about you described in this policy, is stored in the United States of America.

Disclosure of Your Information

We may disclose aggregated information about our users, and information that does not identify any individual, without restriction.

We may disclose personal information that we collect or you provide as described in this privacy policy:

To our subsidiaries and affiliates;
To contractors, service providers, and other third parties we use to support our business and who are bound by contractual obligations to keep personal information confidential and use it only for the purposes for which we disclose it to them;
To a buyer or other successor in the event of a merger, divestiture, restructuring, reorganization, dissolution, or other sale or transfer of some or all the Website owner’s assets, whether as a going concern or as part of bankruptcy, liquidation, or similar proceeding, in which personal information held about the Website users is among the assets transferred;
To fulfill the purpose for which you provide it;
For any other purpose disclosed by us when you provide the information; and
With your consent.
We may also disclose your personal information:

To comply with any court order, law, or legal process, including to respond to any government or regulatory request;
To enforce or apply our Terms & Conditions or Privacy Policy and other agreements; and
If we believe disclosure is necessary or appropriate to protect the rights, property, or safety of the Website owner, our customers, or others. This includes exchanging information with other companies and organizations for the purposes of fraud protection and credit risk reduction.
Choices About How We Use and Disclose Information

We strive to provide you with choices regarding the personal information you provide to us. We have created mechanisms to provide you with the following control over your information:

Marketing Emails. You can review and change your personal information in our marketing systems by using the unsubscribe function on our marketing emails.
Tracking Technologies and Advertising. You can set your browser to refuse all or some browser cookies, or to alert you when cookies are being sent. If you disable or refuse cookies, some parts of the Website may become inaccessible or not function properly.
Promotional Offers. If you do not wish to have your contact information used to provide promotional offers, you can opt out by checking the relevant box located on the form on which we collect your data. If we send you a promotional email, you may send us a return email asking to be omitted from future email distributions or use the opt-out feature in the email.
Third party links

The Website contains links to websites operated and maintained by third parties over which the Website has absolutely no control. Any information you provide to third party websites will be governed under the terms of the privacy policy of those respective third parties. Accordingly, we strongly encourage you to investigate and ask questions before disclosing any information to the operators of third party websites, and to familiarize yourself with their privacy practices by reviewing their privacy policies.

Inclusion of third-party websites on or through the Website in no way constitutes an express or implied endorsement of such websites’ policies.

If you have any questions regarding this Privacy Policy and or related practices, please feel free to contact us at [].

Methods used to protect your information

We use HTTPS to protect the confidentiality of your personal information including the use of Secure Sockets Layer or SSL protocol and/or Transport Layer Security or TLS. We also use password encryption to protect all of the information stored in our database. In addition, our business practices are reviewed periodically for compliance with policies and procedures governing the security and confidentiality of information. Our business practices limit employee access to confidential information and limit the use and disclosure of such information to authorized persons.

Our Website uses commercially reasonable technologies, processes and procedures to maintain the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all personal data.

The safety and security of your information also depends on you. Where we have given you (or where you have chosen) a password for access to certain parts of the Website, you are responsible for keeping this password confidential. We ask you not to share your password with anyone. We urge you to be careful about giving out information in public areas of the Website like message boards. The information you share in public areas may be viewed by any user of the Website.

However, no data transmission over the Internet can be guaranteed to be 100% secure, and no data system is free from error. Therefore, while we strive to protect your personal information, we cannot guarantee or warrant that it will be safe from theft, loss, damage, and/or corruption. Any transmission of personal information is at your own risk. By using the Website, you hereby agree that the Website owner and its officers, directors, employees, shareholders, insurers, attorneys, vendors, agents and representatives, shall not be liable for any theft, loss, damage and/or corruption to your information, including but not limited to your personally identifiable information. We are not responsible for circumvention of any privacy settings or security measures contained on the Website, in this Privacy Policy, or on our Terms and Conditions.

Your rights

You have the right to know what data is being collected from you, where it’s being processed, how it’s being used, how long it is stored for, and who we share the information with. If you have consented to our use of information about you for a specific purpose, you have the right to change your mind at any time, but this will not affect any processing that has already taken place. Where we are using your information because we or a third party have a legitimate interest in doing so, you have the right to object to that use. However, in some cases, this may mean no longer using the Website or our services. You may also request that we transfer or erase your personal data.

How you can access or correct your information

We do our best to respect your privacy rights and provide you access and control over your data. You can make any of the following requests regarding your data by sending an e-mail to []:

Access and review your data;
Correct your data or request that we delete some or all of it;
Obtain copies of your data in human and/or machine-readable format suitable for importing to other software; and
Restrict us from using or processing your data.
Because we use third-party services to back up our information, we cannot delete your specific information from our backups. The third-party back up service creates images of our database and stores them. After a period, the oldest images are deleted. Furthermore, during critical stages of system changes, we sometimes create manual backups. We retain these backups for no longer than necessary.

We cannot delete your personal information except by also deleting your user account. We may not accommodate a request to change or delete information if we believe the change or deletion would violate any law or legal requirement or cause the information to be incorrect.

If you delete your User Contributions from the Website, copies of your User Contributions may remain viewable in cached and archived pages or might have been copied or stored by other Website users. Proper access and use of information provided on the Website, including User Contributions, is governed by our Terms & Conditions.

California Privacy Rights

California Civil Code § 1798.83 permits users of the Website that are California residents to request certain information regarding our disclosure of personal information to third parties for their direct marketing purposes. To make such a request, please send an email to [].

How long your data is stored

How long we keep information we collect about you depends on the type of information, as described in further detail below. After such time, we will either delete or anonymize your information or, if this is not possible (for example, because the information has been stored in backup archives), then we will securely store your information and isolate it from any further use until deletion is possible.

Account information: We retain your account information until you delete your account. We also retain some of your information as necessary to comply with our legal obligations, to resolve disputes, to enforce our agreements, to support business operations and to continue to develop and improve the Website and services. Where we retain information for service improvement and development, we take steps to eliminate information that directly identifies you, and we only use the information to uncover collective insights about the use of our services, not to specifically analyze personal characteristics about you.

Information you share on the Website: If your account is deactivated or disabled, some of your information and the content you have provided will remain in order to allow your team members or other users to make full use of the Website. For example, we continue to display comments and content you provided to the Website.

Marketing information: If you have elected to receive marketing emails from us, we retain information about your marketing preferences unless you specifically ask us to delete such information. We retain information derived from cookies and other tracking technologies for a reasonable period of time from the date such information was created.

Changes to privacy policy

If this Privacy Policy or its procedures change, those changes will be posted to the website. Any such changes will be effective immediately upon being posted, unless otherwise stated in the change.

How Social Security Works: A Guide to Social Security Benefits

If you’ve held a 9-5 job, you’ve likely heard of social security. This federal program serves as a sort-of savings account that older Americans can tap into to provide income for their retirement. While most people associate social security with retirement benefits, it also provides disability benefits and support for family members who lose a spouse or parent. 

Statistics show about 180 million people worked and paid social security taxes and about 65 million people received monthly benefits as of June 2020. Most of the beneficiaries, about 49 million people, are current retirees, according to the Social Security Administration.

To better understand what social security benefits are, how the federal government calculates them, and what you can financially expect to get later on in life, this guide should provide answers to commonly asked questions. 

How does social security work?

When a person works, he or she pays into the social security system. Take a look at a pay stub. You’ll notice that your employer has taken out FICA taxes, that’s for social security retirement benefits. Most employees pay 6.2% of their income into social security and the employer matches that, paying another 6.2%, for a total of 14.4% of income delivered to the social security system. 

As a person works and pays into the system, credits are earned. Eligibility is based on earning credits. Usually, a person needs 40 credits, which are usually accumulated after about 10 years of work, to be eligible for social security benefits. 

Senior citizens choose when to start collecting retirement income. It can be collected at full retirement age, where a person receives full benefits or collected earlier, at age 62. If a person decides to collect early retirement at the age of 62, the income will be less than it would be if the person waited until full retirement age.

What age is considered full retirement age? It varies based on the year a person is born. The chart below explains when a person is considered full retirement age:

Year of birth

Full retirement age
195566 years and 2 months
195666 years and 4 months
195766 years and 6 months
195866 years and 8 months
195966 years and 10 months
1960 or later67

When a person is ready to start collecting social security, he or she must apply for the benefits about four months before the payments are expected to start. Funds are deposited directly into a bank account or placed on a prepaid debit card.

How much money can you expect from social security?

The amount of money a person gets for monthly income depends on lifetime earnings and at what age the benefits are claimed. As of June 2020, the average monthly payout was $1514, which is about $18,170 a year. While that might not seem like a lot, keep in mind that social security isn’t meant to be a person’s sole source of retirement income. It’s meant to serve as a supplement. 

Of course, knowing how much money will likely come from social security can help with retirement plans. 

The federal government has a formula to calculate retirement benefits. To start, actual earnings are adjusted or indexed to account for changes in wages since a person began working. Then, an average monthly earning is reached by looking at the 35 best-paid years. From there, a primary insurance amount is computed, which is the amount a person would earn monthly if the person waited to claim benefits at full retirement age. 

Since the math behind social security benefits is a bit complicated to grasp, the Social Security Administration has a retirement estimator tool on its website ( that can provide this figure easily. A “My Social Security” account must be set up first.

Before using the estimator, there are certain factors that can change a retirement benefit that retired workers should be aware of, which include:

  • The age at which social security retirement benefits are claimed alters the monthly amount.
  • Cost of living adjustments are added to benefits when a person reaches 62 and continues up to the year a person starts receiving benefits.
  • A person can delay the start of their own retirement benefits past his or her full retirement age, which can increase monthly benefits. 
  • The payout formula is different for government workers with a pension that’s not tied to social security. Government employees should use this planning tool for additional information.  

What should you know about disability benefits?

Social security benefits are also available for those with disabilities from two different programs: Supplemental Security Income and Social Security Disability Insurance. 

Supplemental Security Income is for elderly, blind, or disabled adults or children with little to no income or assets. Social Security Disability Insurance provides benefits for people who have worked enough to qualify for social security benefits, which is usually about 10 working years.

To learn more, check out our guide to benefits for people with disabilities

What should you know about social security survivor benefits?

Social security funds are also used to pay survivor benefits. If an earner dies, qualifying spouses, or in some cases parents, can receive benefits. To start the process, the Social Security Administration must be notified of the death and a death certificate must be submitted. 

Spousal benefits are generally available to spouses once they reach the age of 60. The amount given depends on how much money the deceased person was getting from social security or would have earned, if the person wasn’t claiming benefits yet. The amount changes based on when a spouse claims the benefit as well. Waiting until full retirement age does result in more income. 

It’s possible for people to claim both their own social security benefits and survivor benefits. If that’s the case, a person will get the larger monthly sum, not both benefits combined. A person might decide to claim their own benefits early and delay survivor benefits. 

To understand more about social security survivor benefits and what the benefit amount could be, visit the survivor benefits page on the Social Security Administration website. 

How can you apply for social security benefits?

If a person is ready to collect social security benefits, there are three ways to get the process started. A person can apply online at, by calling the Social Security Administration office at 1-800-325-0778, or by visiting a local social security office.

Filing online takes about 15 minutes. A person must answer a series of questions to complete an application, but the process can be completed in multiple sessions, if necessary. It’s best to apply for the benefits about four months before you’d like to receive them.  

Where does social security tax money go?

Social security is taxed by the US government: it’s a payroll tax that’s taken out of a person’s paycheck. In 2021, $0.85 of every dollar goes to a social security trust fund that pays out social security benefits. About $0.15 of every dollar goes to a trust fund used to support people with disabilities. Less than $0.01 goes to manage the fund, according to the Social Security Administration

When did social security income start?

President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the Social Security Act into law in 1935. Its original purpose was to help older Americans retire more comfortably, but was amended to include disability and survivor benefits years later.

Are social security benefits taxed?

If a person earns too much money, social security income is taxed by the U.S. government. If a person files a federal tax return as an individual with a combined income between $25,000-$34,000, the person will pay income tax on up to 50% of his or her benefits. A person making more than $34,000 will pay income tax on up to 85% of his or her benefits. 

A joint return with a combined income between $25,000-$44,000 will also pay income tax on up to 50% of the benefit sum. Anything over $44,000, the earner can expect to pay tax on up to 85% of the monthly benefit. The social security website explains more about taxed benefits.

What is delayed retirement?

Delayed retirement is when a person chooses not to claim benefits until after their full retirement age. The person earns delayed retirement credits, which can increase the monthly amount the person will receive once he or she starts collecting.

What is early retirement?

A person can start collecting social security benefits at the age of 62, which is before anyone reaches their full retirement age. If the money is collected before full retirement age, it’s considered early retirement and benefits are reduced.

Tip:  Many retirees who want to retire early utilize annuities to supplement their income and delay their Social Security Benefits until full retirement age. As a result, they have a higher monthly income amount throughout retirement.

Can you still work and receive social security benefits?

Yes. A person can work and still get social security, but there is a limit to how much can be earned. The United States government has some strict, specific rules about earning while claiming benefits, which can be found on the social security website under receiving benefits while working.

Will social security run out?

Reports show social security funds could run out by 2028. There are many reasons behind the depleting funds. For starters, the pandemic has created a high unemployment rate, which means fewer people are paying into the system. Plus, wages are down, so even people who are paying into the system are paying less. The pandemic has shaved an estimated seven years off the social security fund’s lifespan. 

In addition, more people are claiming disability and more people taking social security before they reach full retirement age, which has also left the system strapped for cash. 

There are suggested solutions, which include increasing payroll taxes, reducing everyone’s benefit amount, and raising the minimum age to collect social security. 

Considering the future of social security is unstable, it’s best to speak with an investment advisor to review your earnings record, estimate social security benefits, and plan for shortfalls.   

What resources are available to learn more about social security? 

A person can visit the Social Security Administration website at, call the office at 1-800-325-0778, or visit a local social security office. Typically, offices are open Monday-Friday from 7am-7pm. 

This guide, Understanding The Benefits, may also provide additional information.

Top School Districts in Wyoming, 2021


Many know Wyoming as a rugged, expansive natural playground, sparsely populated and home to a number of vast, beautiful state and national parks. Yet, few are aware that the Cowboy State is one of the best in the nation for education, with well-funded schools characterized by high performance in academics and standardized testing. Here’s a look at Wyoming’s five best school districts. 

Albany County School District #1 is the best public school system in Wyoming. Comprising fifteen schools with an enrollment of over 4,000 in the southeastern part of the state, ACSD#1 boasts a math proficiency rate higher than state and national averages, and 105 students of the graduating class of 2018 received the Hathaway Scholarship

Wyoming’s 2nd best school district is Sheridan County School District #2, made up of ten high-performing schools with a considerable list of accolades, including a remarkable eight National Blue Ribbon Award honors.

Placing 3rd is Park County School District #16, a single-school district based in Meeteetse with an enrollment of 121. Students of the district graduate at a rate of 92.3% and over 70% are proficient in mathematics.    

Natrona County School District earns Wyoming’s #4 spot. An expansive district based in the city of Caspar and serving around 13,000 students, NCSD is the largest employer in Natrona County and plays a central role in the lives of many of its residents.

Rounding out the list of Wyoming’s best school districts is Fremont County School District #2, consisting of a single K-12 school in the small town of Dubois. Despite its modest size, FCSD#2 offers an extensive, wide-ranging curriculum that gives students plenty of opportunity to specialize in their subjects of interest. 

Top School Districts in Wyoming, 2020

1Albany County School District #1
2Sheridan County School District #2
3Park County School District #16
4Natrona County School District #1
5Fremont County School District # 2
6Lincoln County School District #2
7Sweetwater County School District #1
8Teton County School District #1
9Campbell County School District #1
10Washakie County School District #2
11Fremont County School District #24
12Sheridan County School District #3
13Sweetwater County School District #2
14Sublette County School District #1
15Sheridan County School District #1
16Laramie County School District #1
17Converse County School District #1
18Park County School District # 1
19Uinta County School District #1
20Carbon County School District #2


The following variables contributed to the ranking: number of students (K-12), graduation rate, school funding per student, student to teacher ratio, percent of students scoring above proficient in standardized state Math test, percent of students scoring above proficient in standardized state Reading and Language test. Data from a total of 10,247 public school districts were used to compute a score for each school district. The following states were omitted due to lack of sufficient data: Hawaii, New Hampshire, New Mexico, Utah, and Virginia. Note that high schools in some states have their own independent districts.

Did your district make the list? Share the good news!

wyoming_top school_district_badge_2020

How to Start a Neighborhood Watch Program

how to start a neighborhood watch

When you see a neighborhood watch sign on a street corner–you know the one–with a big red line slashing across the dark silhouette of a man in a fedora and trench coat, you automatically feel safer. Why? Because you know inhabitants of the neighborhood are banding together to take an active stand against crime and vandalism in their local community.

Since its beginnings in the early 70’s, the National Neighborhood Watch program, a branch of the National Sheriff’s Association, has been motivating citizens to rally together and work with local law enforcement to prevent neighborhood crime. While a neighborhood watch isn’t a vigilante task force, it can be empowering for residents of a community that often feel helpless. Does your local area lack a neighborhood watch program? Now’s the time to start one, and we’ll help you through it, step-by-step.

Why start a neighborhood watch?

There’s several key reasons for starting a neighborhood watch program in your neighborhood. Let’s go over them here.

  • A neighborhood watch helps reduce crime and deters criminals from operating in your neighborhood.

This is the big reason for starting a watch, and they do work to lower neighborhood crime. While there is a lack of recent studies on neighborhood watch programs, a 2008 U.S. Justice Department meta-analysis of U.S., U.K. and Canadian research done between 1977 and 1994 found that there was a 16% average decrease in crime compared to control areas that lacked a neighborhood watch. There is no more effect step that residents of a neighborhood can take to reduce crime in their area.

  • Participating in a neighborhood strengthens the bonds within a community and bolsters civic pride.

These days, with fewer neighborhood residents knowing and having relationships with their neighbors than in the past, according to a recent Pew study, a neighborhood watch is a perfect way for residents to increase interaction with those that they live amongst. When residents of a community cooperate towards a common goal, they develop lifelong bonds and a renewed sense of trust in one another. A watch also grants a community a stronger sense of self-identity and responsibility to do well by their neighbors.

  • A neighborhood watch raises the level of cooperation between residents and local law enforcement, while increasing faith in the police.

The first step in kicking off any neighborhood watch is contacting the local police, and they should play an active role throughout a watch’s history. Despite their role in protecting the neighborhood, watch members are always encouraged to call the police in the event of suspicious activity, rather than personally intervening. This cooperative relationship puts a human face on the local police force and enhances the community’s faith in them.

  • Your local neighborhood watch positive influences the youth of the community, teaching them the importance of playing an active role in community programs.

When kids witness their parents and neighbors putting an effort towards keeping the neighborhood safe, it motivates them to follow suit when they come of age. Children learn best by example, so showing them that you care about their safety and the greater good of the community points them in the right direction.

  • Residents of a community live a happier life.

A neighborhood watch helps local residents to feel safe and secure, increasing their quality of life. When people worry less about becoming a victim of crime or vandalism, they can focus on the important things in life, i.e., their professions, their favorite pastimes, and their loved ones.

Checklist: Starting a neighborhood watch

The following are the key steps anyone committed to enacting a neighborhood watch should follow:

  • Step 1: Notify the local law enforcement agency.

The local police department in your community will play an integral role in your neighborhood watch program, so informing them of your intention to start a program, before all else, is key. You’ll want to secure their support and commitment to participation. If possible, request that an officer be present during the first meeting of a neighborhood watch to answer questions and demonstrate support.

  • Step 2: Hold an initial meeting.

Since it’s likely the most important meeting your neighborhood watch will hold, make sure that your first neighborhood watch meeting is scheduled at a date and time when residents of the neighborhood will be able to attend, such as a weekend afternoon or evening during the middle of the week. Hold the meeting in a convenient, well-known location like a community center, or library.

The keynote meeting is your chance to demonstrate why a neighborhood watch will be effective and beneficial towards the community, so come well-prepared with guidelines and goals in place. Be ready to answer any and all questions members of your community may have, and have a police officer present to assist in guiding the meeting.

  • Step 3: Put the word out.

Do everything in your power to let residents–and potential criminals–know that a neighborhood watch is in effect. The best way to do this is by distributing flyers in the mailboxes of every home in the community detailing the goals of your program, and providing phone numbers that residents may call with questions or concerns. Signs and decals posted around the neighborhood that indicate that your neighborhood is protected by a watch is another key element of spreading the word. Additionally, please note that you can create your own flyer using editable flyer templates.

  • Step 4: Organize and assign roles.

Being well-organized and staffed is an important element of an effective program. Have an action plan in place. Know the schedules and availability of participating neighborhood watch members. The most enthusiastic members can be assigned as block captain. Be aware of members’ strengths: if one volunteer is particularly web-savvy, put them in charge of the internet and social media arm of your program.

  • Step 5: Lead by example.

If you’re the one kicking off a neighborhood watch, you have a responsibility to fulfill your duties and motivate others to participate. If something happens at any point that prevents you from participating at a level appropriate for a community leader, then elect someone better suited to the task.

  • Step 6: Stay committed.

A neighborhood watch is hard work, and it requires a level of commitment from all involved. Don’t start strong and slack off, keep things moving and make sure volunteers remain communicative and on board. Regular meetings are a key part of an active, effective watch program.

Neighborhood safety tips

Take a look at these tips that will help make your neighborhood watch more effective in keeping your community safe:

  • Know what crime occurs in your neighborhood.

By gathering information on the local crime rate, and the types of crime common in your neighborhood, you and other watch members will know what to keep a lookout for.

  • Participate in neighborhood cleanup activities.

A clean community is a safe community. Organize neighborhood cleanup events to beautify the area, clean up vacant lots, and request that local business owners keep their storefronts in good condition.

  • Ensure that your members are well-educated on their responsibilities, as well as their limits.

Members of a neighborhood watch can patrol the area for suspicious behavior, but rarely should they become directly involved with an ongoing crime, which could lead to larger problems for everyone involved. Make sure they know that they ought to call the police, rather than attempt to stop a crime on their own.

  • If your neighborhood has a large hispanic presence, translate reading materials and signs into Spanish.

Don’t leave community members in the cold: if your neighborhood has a large hispanic population, make sure that your signs and flyers reflect this.

  • Encourage residents unable to take an active role in the watch to participate in any way they can.

Even if residents are too busy, or physically unable to take an active role in the program, let them know that they can help by being “window watchers”, and alerting the police if they ever witness suspicious activity outside their homes or from their vehicle. Another way they can help is enhancing their own home security with a security system, which helps to dissuade burglars from operating in the neighborhood.


Now that you have a firm understanding of why a neighborhood watch is important, and how you can take a leading role in starting one up, the rest is on you. You are about to begin one of the most challenging, yet rewarding projects in your lifetime. We wish you good luck in keeping your community safe!

Safest Cities in North Carolina, 2021

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Although it’s around the middle of the pack of U.S. states in terms of overall crime rates, North Carolina is home to a large number of very safe communities. We gave each North Carolina city (with a population above 10,000) a score on our Safety Index, which combines FBI crime statistics and law enforcement employment numbers to calculate the safety of a given city, and 24 cities in the state earned a 0.24 or above, indicating a high level of public safety well above the U.S. average. 

Of these 24 North Carolina cities, 6 achieved a 0.5 Safety Index score or above, placing them in the upper echelon of safe cities in the country. Let’s take a closer look at these cities to see what makes them so safe.

Pinehurst, a village in Moore County, is North Carolina’s safest community. Renowned as home to Pinehurst Resort, a historic golf resort designed by Frederick Law Olmsted, the pioneer of American landscape architecture, Pinehurst earned a 0.6 Safety Index score on the strength of a very low property crime rate that is less than half of the U.S. average.

In terms of safety, #2 Archdale is not far behind. The cozy city of 11.6K 15 miles outside of Greensboro is home to wine vineyards as well as the John Deere Vintage Tractor Museum, which should be on visitor’s short list of North Carolina tourist destinations. 

Sharing the #3 spot are Holly Springs and Mount Airy, two North Carolina cities that earned a 0.54 Safety Index Score, owing to low crime rates and favorable ratios of police officers to residents. Holly Springs, in particular, has received acclaim as a great town to live in, on account of its great public school system and many public parks. Currently boasting a population of around 35,000, Holly Springs has more than tripled its population since the year 2000.

With it’s 0.51 Safety Index score, Elon, a town in Alamance County best known as home to Elon University, just edges out Apex (Safety Index score: 0.5) for North Carolina’s #5 spot. However, both are great family-friendly communities to settle down in.  

Safest Cities in North Carolina, 2019

RankCitySafety Index
3Holly Springs0.54
4Mount Airy0.54
8Mount Holly0.45
13Kings Mountain0.39
15Wake Forest0.39
24Chapel Hill0.27
26Southern Pines0.16
32Mint Hill0.07
34New Bern0.04
43Rocky Mount-0.39
47Elizabeth City-0.49
53High Point-0.7
56Hope Mills-0.87
60Roanoke Rapids-0.98


We used the most recent FBI crime statistics to create state rankings. There were initially 7,430 cities in the data set. After filtering out the cities with populations of less than 10,000, 2,929 cities remained. We then calculated violent crime rates and property crime rates by dividing the crime numbers by the population to get rates per 1,000. We also calculated the ratio of law enforcement workers to per 1,000. These were weighted with -50% for the violent crime rate, -25% for the property crime rate, and +25% for the law enforcement rate. The resulting metric gave us a the safety index score. The higher this number more safe the city is.

Did your district make the list? Share the good news!

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Safest Cities in North Dakota, 2021

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While North Dakota’s population has grown by a considerable 12.77% since 2010, it’s managed to do so without a spike in crime rates: the state is a respectable 21st in property crime and 14th in violent crime. 

Let’s take a look at the four North Dakota cities (with a population greater than or equal to 10,000) that earned favorable scores on our Safety Index, which factors in FBI crime statistics and law enforcement employee numbers to judge the safety of a community.

Dickinson and West Fargo share the title of North Dakota’s safest city, with each earning a Safety Index score of 0.33. Both logged violent and property crime rates below state and national averages, although West Fargo’s violent crime rate of 1.45 per 1,000 and property crime rate of 13.49 per 1,000 best Dickinson in both categories. Dickinson makes up for it by posting a higher law enforcement employees to resident ratio.

Trailing slightly behind is North Dakota’s #3 safest city, Minot, of Ward County. The city of over 50,000 recorded a violent crime rate of 2.67 per 1,000, which is considerably below the national average.

At number four, Williston is the final North Dakota city in our ranking to log a favorable Safety Index score. The city’s property crime rate of 23.34 per 1,000 is on par with the national average, though its violent crime rate is slightly below the national average. 

Safest Cities in North Dakota, 2019

RankCitySafety Index
2West Fargo0.33
7Grand Forks-0.22


We used the most recent FBI crime statistics to create state rankings. There were initially 7,430 cities in the data set. After filtering out the cities with populations of less than 10,000, 2,929 cities remained. We then calculated violent crime rates and property crime rates by dividing the crime numbers by the population to get rates per 1,000. We also calculated the ratio of law enforcement workers to per 1,000. These were weighted with -50% for the violent crime rate, -25% for the property crime rate, and +25% for the law enforcement rate. The resulting metric gave us a the safety index score. The higher this number more safe the city is.

Did your district make the list? Share the good news!

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Safest Cities in Wyoming, 2021

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Good news for Wyoming residents: the Cowboy state is among the top ten safest in the country based on its low violent and property crime rates. This is reflected in the performance of Wyoming’s cities on our Safety Index, which utilizes FBI crime statistics and law enforcement employee data to calculate the safety of a community. 

Just 2 of Wyoming’s 10 cities with a population over 10K received negative Safety Index scores (Cheyenne and Rock Springs), indicating higher than average crime rates, meaning that the other 8 performed very favorably. Of the 8 Wyoming cities to earn a positive Safety Index score, 4 truly distinguished themselves, earning a 0.5 or higher. Let’s take a closer look at Wyoming’s 4 safest cities.

Our pick for the safest city in Wyoming is Sheridan, a community in the northern part of the state located halfway between Yellowstone Park and Mount Rushmore that is known for its strong rodeo and cowboy culture. The city logged just 8 violent crimes in 2017, which amounts to a very low 0.44 per 1,000 violent crime rate, less than a quarter of Wyoming’s already low state average.

Placing #2 in the list of ranking of Wyoming’s safest cities is Green River, of the wonderfully named Sweetwater County. The mining and energy hub recorded a terrific 1.63 per 1,000 violent crime rate along with a property crime rate below 10 per 1,000. At #3 Jackson, county seat of Teton County and gateway to the Grand Teton National Park, fared nearly as well, posting violent and property crime rates below the national averages in both categories.

Laramie is the 4th of our 4 Wyoming cities to achieve that lofty goal of a 0.5 Safety Index score or higher.  The city of over 32K recorded just 30 violent crimes in 2017, for a violent crime rate of less than 1 incident per 1,000 residents. 

Safest Cities in Wyoming, 2019

RankCitySafety Index
2Green River0.55
9Rock Springs-0.14


We used the most recent FBI crime statistics to create state rankings. There were initially 7,430 cities in the data set. After filtering out the cities with populations of less than 10,000, 2,929 cities remained. We then calculated violent crime rates and property crime rates by dividing the crime numbers by the population to get rates per 1,000. We also calculated the ratio of law enforcement workers to per 1,000. These were weighted with -50% for the violent crime rate, -25% for the property crime rate, and +25% for the law enforcement rate. The resulting metric gave us a the safety index score. The higher this number more safe the city is.

Did your district make the list? Share the good news!

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Safest Cities in Ohio, 2021

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Though Ohio is in the midrange of U.S. states in terms of crime rates, with the 25th lowest property crime rate and 18th lowest violent crime rate, a considerable number of its cities earned very high scores on our Safety Index, which factors in FBI crime stats and law enforcement employment numbers to judge the safety of a community.

In all, 50 Ohio cities earned a Safety Index score of 0.3 or above, meaning they are very safe communities to live in, while 13 recorded a 0.6 or above, placing them in the upper echelon of U.S. cities in terms of safety. Let’s look at Ohio’s five safest cities to see the best the Buckeye State has to offer.

Maumee is Ohio’s safest city, earning a remarkably high 0.98 Safety Index score. The cozy community of around 14K logged a violent crime rate of 0.36 per 1,000, which is less than a tenth of the national average.

Similarly sized Brecksville recorded even more impressive crime rates, including a 0.15 per 1,000 rate of violent crime and 3.87 per 1,000 rate of property crime. Brecksville is in the #2 position because its ratio of law enforcement officers to residents is lower than #1 Maumee’s.

Ranking third, Cleveland suburb Solon continues Ohio’s streak of low-crime communities, managing a very low 0.56 violent crimes per 1,000 residents. At number four, Wickliffe is not far behind: the city of 12.6K recorded just 9 violent crimes in 2017 for a 0.77 Safety Index score.

New Albany rounds out Ohio’s top five safest communities. The Columbus area suburb recorded less than fifteen violent and property crimes combined in 2017.

Safest Cities in Ohio, 2019

RankCitySafety Index
5New Albany0.79
10Bedford Heights0.65
11Blue Ash0.61
13Perrysburg Township0.6
17Seven Hills0.53
18Avon Lake0.51
21North Ridgeville0.5
31Poland Township0.42
33North Olmsted0.41
34Upper Arlington0.39
35Pierce Township0.38
36Richmond Heights0.38
42Clearcreek Township0.35
46Copley Township0.33
49Shawnee Township0.31
52Delhi Township0.27
55Bowling Green0.24
58Van Wert0.2
60Cuyahoga Falls0.19
61Union Township, Clermont County0.19
63Cleveland Heights0.18
65Miami Township, Clermont County0.17
66West Carrollton0.14
70Forest Park0.09
74Springfield Township, Hamilton County0.05
77Huber Heights0.04
80Mount Vernon-0.02
81American Township-0.03
88Colerain Township-0.22
90Fairfield Township-0.23
94Washington Court House-0.31


We used the most recent FBI crime statistics to create state rankings. There were initially 7,430 cities in the data set. After filtering out the cities with populations of less than 10,000, 2,929 cities remained. We then calculated violent crime rates and property crime rates by dividing the crime numbers by the population to get rates per 1,000. We also calculated the ratio of law enforcement workers to per 1,000. These were weighted with -50% for the violent crime rate, -25% for the property crime rate, and +25% for the law enforcement rate. The resulting metric gave us a the safety index score. The higher this number more safe the city is.

Did your district make the list? Share the good news!

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